to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced
individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing
a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model
(see claymation - and stop motion), and then photographing the result.
When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed
at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is an illusion
of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision). Generating
such a film is very labor intensive and tedious, though the development
of computer animation has greatly sped up the process.
is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation
by using "short cuts" in the animation process. This method
was pioneered by UPA, then adapted by other studios cartoons moved
from movies into television.
is very time - consuming and often very expensive to produce, the
majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional
animation studios. However, the field of independent animation has
existed at least since the 1950s, with animation being produced
by independent studios (and sometimes by a single person). Several
independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional
This animation moves at 10 frames per second.
This animation moves at 2 frames per second. At this rate, the individual
frames should be discernible.
The animation shown before consist of these 6 frames.
The history of film animation begins with the earliest days of silent
film and continues through the present day.
history of animation as an art form has undergone many changes in
its hundred - year history, Cinemateca.org presents four separate
chapters in the development of animation:
Hollywood Animation: The Silent Period - (1900s through 1920s)
of theatrical animated cartoons in the era of silent film, ranging
from the works of Winsor McCay through Koko the Clown and Felix
Animation: The Golden Age (1930s and 1940s)
of Walt Disney throughout the 1930s
The rise of Warner Bros. and MGM
The departure from realism, and UPA
Animation: The TV Era (1950s through 1980s)
of TV animated series from Hanna - Barbera Productions
The decline of theatrical cartoons and feature films
Saturday morning cartoons
The attempts at reviving animated features through the 1960s and
The onslaught of commercial cartoons in the 1980s
Animation: The Renaissance (1990s to present)
Who Framed Roger
Rabbit and the return of Disney
Steven Spielberg's collaborations with Warner Bros.
A flood of newer, bolder animation studios
The Simpsons, South Park, and animation for adults
The mainstream popularization of anime
The rise of computer animation
The decline of Saturday morning cartoons, the rise of Nickelodeon
and Cartoon Network
Shamus Culhane -
John Hubley -
Grim Natwick -
National Film Board of Canada
Termite Terrace -
Walt Disney Studios
Walter Lantz Studio
Stop-motion animation (for ex. claymation - , Pixilation - )
Pinscreen animation -
Drawn on film animation
See also: Animated series, Anime (Japanese animation)