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Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation - and stop motion), and then photographing the result. When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is an illusion of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision). Generating such a film is very labor intensive and tedious, though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process.

Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. This method was pioneered by UPA, then adapted by other studios cartoons moved from movies into television.

Because animation is very time - consuming and often very expensive to produce, the majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional animation studios. However, the field of independent animation has existed at least since the 1950s, with animation being produced by independent studios (and sometimes by a single person). Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry.

Illustration: This animation moves at 10 frames per second.

Illustration: This animation moves at 2 frames per second. At this rate, the individual frames should be discernible.

Illustration: The animation shown before consist of these 6 frames.

Animation History

The history of film animation begins with the earliest days of silent film and continues through the present day.

Because the history of animation as an art form has undergone many changes in its hundred - year history, presents four separate chapters in the development of animation:

Hollywood Animation: The Silent Period - (1900s through 1920s)

The beginnings of theatrical animated cartoons in the era of silent film, ranging from the works of Winsor McCay through Koko the Clown and Felix the Cat

Hollywood Animation: The Golden Age (1930s and 1940s)

The dominance of Walt Disney throughout the 1930s
The rise of Warner Bros. and MGM
The departure from realism, and UPA

Hollywood Animation: The TV Era (1950s through 1980s)

The emergence of TV animated series from Hanna - Barbera Productions
The decline of theatrical cartoons and feature films
Saturday morning cartoons
The attempts at reviving animated features through the 1960s and 1970s
The onslaught of commercial cartoons in the 1980s

Hollywood Animation: The Renaissance (1990s to present)

Who Framed Roger Rabbit and the return of Disney
Steven Spielberg's collaborations with Warner Bros.
A flood of newer, bolder animation studios
The Simpsons, South Park, and animation for adults
The mainstream popularization of anime
The rise of computer animation
The decline of Saturday morning cartoons, the rise of Nickelodeon and Cartoon Network

Animation History: Canada -

Animation History: Europe -

Animation History: Japan -

Famous Names in Animation

Tex Avery
Ralph Bakshi
Mel Blanc
Bob Clampett
Shamus Culhane -
Walt Disney
Max Fleischer
Friz Freleng
John Hubley -
Ub Iwerks
Chuck Jones
Walter Lantz
Winsor McCay
Norman McLaren
Grim Natwick -
Nick Park
Oliver Postgate

Animation Studios

Aardman Animation
Fleischer Studio
Hanna-Barbera Productions
National Film Board of Canada
Termite Terrace -
Walt Disney Studios
Walter Lantz Studio
Warner Brothers

Styles of Animation

Computer animation
Stop-motion animation (for ex. claymation - , Pixilation - )
Limited animation
Pinscreen animation -
Drawn on film animation
See also: Animated series, Anime (Japanese animation)


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